This book has been written to help all those involved in planning and implementing emergency sanitation programmes. Users may include field technicians, engineers and hygiene promoters, as well as technical and non-technical staff at agency headquarters. The authors have attempted to provide a balance between the hardware (technical) and software (socio-cultural, institutional) aspects of sanitation programmes. It is hoped that this may help technical staff to understand better the software aspects, and hygiene and community health specialists to understand better the more technical aspects. The main focus of the book is a systematic and structured approach to assessment and programme design. There is a strong emphasis on socio-cultural issues and community participation throughout.